Atferdsanalyse


Atferdsanalytiske ord og begreper

En liten, forhåpentlig kortfattet og konsis (men jeg advarer, ikke alltid min sterke side :D) oversikt over sentrale ord og begreper innen atferdsanalysen. Oversikten er på ingen måte uttømmende, og vil i stor grad basere seg på notater og pensumlitteratur fra Bachelor i Læringspsykologi ved HiOA samt Masterprogrammet Læring i Komplekse Systemer samme sted. Jeg beklager manglende linjeskift innad i oppføringene. Er på utkikk etter funksjonell programvare som tillater dette.

Om du savner noe eller ikke finner det du leter etter – send meg en mail, eller kom tilbake en annen dag. Siden blir fortløpende oppdatert.

En aldri så liten disclaimer er på sin plass: Det kan ha gått fort i svingene til tider. Må innrømme at det hender rett som det er…. Så stusser du over definisjoner eller forklaringer; konferer med annen litteratur eller et orakel nær deg. Finner du regelrette feil, upresise opplysninger eller mangler setter jeg stor pris på tilbakemeldinger (jada, fra deg også Rasmi 😉 ). Enjoy!

 

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Jeg linker gjerne til siden din, eller du kan få publisere her. Send en mail til karoline@operant.no
Psst! Sjekk også ut andres ordbøker ved å ta en titt på Ordbøker under Ressurser.

 

 

 

All | # A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
There are 8 names in this directory beginning with the letter A.
ABC modellen
“ABC Model: a description of the behavior-change process expressed in terms of Antecedent, Behavior, and Consequence (also known as the three-term-contingency) (Daniels, 2006, p. 301). ABC modellen og tretermskontingensen beskriver det samme, den funksjonelle sammenhengen mellom atferd og dens forutgående og påfølgende hendelser. Der ABC modellen henviser til Antecedents, Behavior og Consequences betegnes dette ved hjelp av Mechner-notasjoner (Sd, R, Sr) i tretermskontingensen. Se eget punkt for tretermskontingensen.

Adaption
«Adaption: a reduction, usually during the prolonged presentation of a stimulus, in the behavior produced by that stimulus (e.g., adaption to an experimental chamber). Cf. HABITUATION, POTENTIATION”(Catania, 2013, p. 428) Innen naturlig evolusjon refererer «adaption»/ tilpasning til den pågående prosessen der en organisme blir «fit» eller tilpasset et skiftende miljø. Et grunnleggende konsept av komplekse adaptive systemer er deres evne til å tilpasse seg ved å endre reglene for samhandling mellom deres komponenter eller agenter. På den måten kan tilpasning bestå av å lære nye regler eller retningslinjer for atferd.

Aggression
«Aggression: a side effect of presenting aversive stimuli or removing positive reinforcers. These events may generate responses that injure other organisms (e.g., biting) and/ or make the opportunities for such responses effective as reinforcers” (Catania, 2013, p. 428). “Aggressive behavior may be innate and released by specific circumstances in which survival value is plausible” …”Or the behavior may be shaped and maintained because people are susceptible to reinforcement by signs of damage to others. The capacity to be reinforced when an opponent cries out or runs away would have survival value because a person so endowed would quickly learn to defend himself. Or, third, the behavior may be reinforced by consequences not explicitly related to aggression. Food and sexual contact, reinforcing for other reasons, may reinforce an attack on a competitor if food or a sexual partner is thus obtained” (Skinner, 1976, p. 47)

Applied Behavior Analysis
“Applied Behavior Analysis. This is a branch of behavior analysis that uses behavior principles to solve practical problems such as the treatment of autism or improved teaching methods. Applied behavior analysis is also referred to as behavioral engineering” (Pierce & Cheney, 2008, p. 339) “Applied Behavior Analysis: a branch of psychology that seeks to extend the findings of laboratory research to everyday problems” (Daniels, 2006, p. 301)

Atferd (Adferd, Behavior)
Atferd er alt en organisme gjør. “Behavior: anything an organism does. The definition is too inclusive as it stands but cannot easily be restricted further. Behavior is not to be equated with movement. For example, shifts of attention needn’t involve eye movement but still qualify as behavior, as when one attends to different performers in listening to a recording of a musical event. The word is often used as a substitute for responses (a behavior, several behaviors), but this text adheres to colloquial usage, in which behavior is a collective term (kinds of behavior). See specific cases: COVERT, EMOTIONAL, SPECIES SPECIFIC, OPERANT, OVERT and RESPONDENT BEHAVIOR” (Catania, 2013, p. 430) “Behavior: any activity of a living creature” (Daniels, 2006, p. 301) “Behavior. Everything that an organism does, including covert actions like thinking” (Pierce & Cheney, 2008, p. 340).

Atferdsanalyse (Behavior Analysis)
“Behavior analysis is a comprehensive approach to the study of the behavior of organisms. Primary objectives are the discovery of principles and laws that govern behavior, the extension of these principles across species, and the development of an applied technology (Pierce & Cheney, 2008, p. 340) for the management of behavior”. (Pierce & Cheney, 2008, p. 3) “Behavior analysis: breaking complex behavior down into its functional parts. A successful analysis should allow the behavior to be synthesized by putting the parts back together. Those who conduct behavior analysis are sometimes called behavior analysts, those who do so in applied settings are sometimes called applied behavior analysts”(Catania, 2013, p. 430) “Behavior analysis: a field of study that uses the priciples and techniques of science to determine the relationships between behavior and its interaction with the environment” (Daniels, 2006, p. 301)

Atferdsanalytikere (Behavior Analysts)
“Behavior analysts. These people are researchers and practitioners of behavioral analysis” (Pierce & Cheney, 2008, p. 340).

Atferdsøkonomi (Behavioral Economics)
Først noen definisjoner av økonomi: “Economic phenomena relate to any aspect of human behavior that involves the allocation of scarce resources; thus economics is very wide-ranging in its subject area” (Wilkinson & Klaes, 2012, p. 2) “Economics, like any other social science, is concerned with developing theories whose ultimate aim is to help us better understand the world we live in. Economic teories attempt to describe and explain relationships between economic phenomena” (Wilkinson & Klaes, 2012, p. 2) Som leder oss videre til definisjoner av Behavioral Economics: “Behavioral economics. The use of economic concepts (price, substitute commodity, etc.) and principles (e.g., marginal utility) to predict, control, and analyze the behavior of organisms in choice situations” (Pierce & Cheney, 2008, p. 341). Om behavioral economics: “It is important to emphasize that the behavioral economics approach extends rational choice and equilibrium models; it does not advocate abandoning these models entirely” Ho, Lim and Camerer, 2006 p 308 (Wilkinson & Klaes, 2012, p. 3) “The purpose of any science is to develop theories that can accurately explain and predict phenomena. Perhaps the most prevalent criticism of economics is that it fails to do this very well in many cases” (Wilkinson & Klaes, 2012, p. 461) “If the forecasts are wrong, then the underlying theory must be wrong too, no matter how complex it may be” (Wilkinson & Klaes, 2012, p. 461)