“ABC Model: a description of the behavior-change process expressed in terms of Antecedent, Behavior, and Consequence (also known as the three-term-contingency) (Daniels, 2006, p. 301).
ABC modellen og tretermskontingensen beskriver det samme, den funksjonelle sammenhengen mellom atferd og dens forutgående og påfølgende hendelser. Der ABC modellen henviser til Antecedents, Behavior og Consequences betegnes dette ved hjelp av Mechner-notasjoner (Sd, R, Sr) i tretermskontingensen. Se eget punkt for tretermskontingensen.
«Adaption: a reduction, usually during the prolonged presentation of a stimulus, in the behavior produced by that stimulus (e.g., adaption to an experimental chamber). Cf. HABITUATION, POTENTIATION”(Catania, 2013, p. 428)
Innen naturlig evolusjon refererer «adaption»/ tilpasning til den pågående prosessen der en
organisme blir «fit» eller tilpasset et skiftende miljø. Et grunnleggende konsept av komplekse
adaptive systemer er deres evne til å tilpasse seg ved å endre reglene for samhandling mellom deres
komponenter eller agenter. På den måten kan tilpasning bestå av å lære nye regler eller
retningslinjer for atferd.
«Aggression: a side effect of presenting aversive stimuli or removing positive reinforcers. These events may generate responses that injure other organisms (e.g., biting) and/ or make the opportunities for such responses effective as reinforcers” (Catania, 2013, p. 428).
“Aggressive behavior may be innate and released by specific circumstances in which survival value is plausible” …”Or the behavior may be shaped and maintained because people are susceptible to reinforcement by signs of damage to others. The capacity to be reinforced when an opponent cries out or runs away would have survival value because a person so endowed would quickly learn to defend himself. Or, third, the behavior may be reinforced by consequences not explicitly related to aggression. Food and sexual contact, reinforcing for other reasons, may reinforce an attack on a competitor if food or a sexual partner is thus obtained” (Skinner, 1976, p. 47)
Applied Behavior Analysis
“Applied Behavior Analysis. This is a branch of behavior analysis that uses behavior principles to solve practical problems such as the treatment of autism or improved teaching methods. Applied behavior analysis is also referred to as behavioral engineering” (Pierce & Cheney, 2008, p. 339)
“Applied Behavior Analysis: a branch of psychology that seeks to extend the findings of laboratory research to everyday problems” (Daniels, 2006, p. 301)
Atferd (Adferd, Behavior)
Atferd er alt en organisme gjør.
“Behavior: anything an organism does. The definition is too inclusive as it stands but cannot easily be restricted further. Behavior is not to be equated with movement. For example, shifts of attention needn’t involve eye movement but still qualify as behavior, as when one attends to different performers in listening to a recording of a musical event. The word is often used as a substitute for responses (a behavior, several behaviors), but this text adheres to colloquial usage, in which behavior is a collective term (kinds of behavior). See specific cases: COVERT, EMOTIONAL, SPECIES SPECIFIC, OPERANT, OVERT and RESPONDENT BEHAVIOR” (Catania, 2013, p. 430)
“Behavior: any activity of a living creature” (Daniels, 2006, p. 301)
“Behavior. Everything that an organism does, including covert actions like thinking” (Pierce & Cheney, 2008, p. 340).
Atferdsanalyse (Behavior Analysis)
“Behavior analysis is a comprehensive approach to the study of the behavior of organisms. Primary objectives are the discovery of principles and laws that govern behavior, the extension of these principles across species, and the development of an applied technology (Pierce & Cheney, 2008, p. 340) for the management of behavior”. (Pierce & Cheney, 2008, p. 3)
“Behavior analysis: breaking complex behavior down into its functional parts. A successful analysis should allow the behavior to be synthesized by putting the parts back together. Those who conduct behavior analysis are sometimes called behavior analysts, those who do so in applied settings are sometimes called applied behavior analysts”(Catania, 2013, p. 430)
“Behavior analysis: a field of study that uses the priciples and techniques of science to determine the relationships between behavior and its interaction with the environment” (Daniels, 2006, p. 301)
Atferdsanalytikere (Behavior Analysts)
“Behavior analysts. These people are researchers and practitioners of behavioral analysis” (Pierce & Cheney, 2008, p. 340).
Atferdsøkonomi (Behavioral Economics)
Først noen definisjoner av økonomi:
“Economic phenomena relate to any aspect of human behavior that involves the allocation of scarce resources; thus economics is very wide-ranging in its subject area” (Wilkinson & Klaes, 2012, p. 2)
“Economics, like any other social science, is concerned with developing theories whose ultimate aim is to help us better understand the world we live in. Economic teories attempt to describe and explain relationships between economic phenomena” (Wilkinson & Klaes, 2012, p. 2)
Som leder oss videre til definisjoner av Behavioral Economics:
“Behavioral economics. The use of economic concepts (price, substitute commodity, etc.) and principles (e.g., marginal utility) to predict, control, and analyze the behavior of organisms in choice situations” (Pierce & Cheney, 2008, p. 341).
Om behavioral economics:
“It is important to emphasize that the behavioral economics approach extends rational choice and equilibrium models; it does not advocate abandoning these models entirely” Ho, Lim and Camerer, 2006 p 308 (Wilkinson & Klaes, 2012, p. 3)
“The purpose of any science is to develop theories that can accurately explain and predict phenomena. Perhaps the most prevalent criticism of economics is that it fails to do this very well in many cases” (Wilkinson & Klaes, 2012, p. 461)
“If the forecasts are wrong, then the underlying theory must be wrong too, no matter how complex it may be” (Wilkinson & Klaes, 2012, p. 461)
«Baseline: a steady and usually recoverable performance on which effects of experimental variables are superimposed. For example, a drug effect may be expressed as the change produced in baseline response rate by a dosage of the drug. The term is also used occasionally to refer to the horizontal starting position of a cumulative recorder pen. Sometimes what the baseline should be is ambiguous; for example if pecks occur at higher rates when they produce shock than when they don’t because shocks are correlated with reinforcers, should the baseline be a no-shock condition with reinforcers or a shock condition without them? Cf. STEADY STATE” (Catania, 2013, p. 430)
«Baseline (A): experimental condition in which data are collected prior to introducing an intervention (B) for the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness of your intervention” (Daniels, 2006, p. 301)
“Baseline. The term refers to the base rate of behavior against which an experimental manipulation is measured. An uncontrolled baseline is the rate of an operant before any known conditioning; a controlled baseline (e.g., the rate of response on a variable-interval 60s schedule) may be established to assess the effects of an experimental manipulation (e.g., presentation of intermittent shocks)” (Pierce & Cheney, 2008, p. 340).
«Behaviorism is not the science of human behavior; it is the philosophy of that science” (Skinner, 1976, p. 3)
“Behaviorism. A term that refers to the scientific philosophy of behavior analysis” (Pierce & Cheney, 2008, p. 341).
Skinner om behaviorismens rolle I dagens (1976) samfunn:
«The major problems facing the world today can be solved only if we improve our understanding of human behavior. Traditional views have been around for centuries, and I think it is fair to say that they have proved to be inadequate. They are largely responsible for the situation in which we now find ourselves. Behaviorism offers a promising alternative, and I have written this book in an effort to make its position clear” (Skinner, 1976, pp. 8-9)
“Bias: a systematic error in measurement. For example, if a device cannot record all responses when they follow each other rapidly, data recorded with the device will be biased toward low response rates. For other usages see MATCHING LAW, PREFERENCE, SIGNAL DETECTION ANALYSIS” (Catania, 2013, p. 430)
“Bias. For the generalized matching equation, bias is indicated by variation in the value of k from 1. Generally, bias is produced by some unknown asymmetry between the alternatives on a concurrent schedule that affects preference over and above the relative rates of reinforcement” (Pierce & Cheney, 2008, p. 341).
«Bribes: statements of contingencies that substitute for a parent’s differential reinforcement of a child’s behavior, so that compliance with requests come to depend upon the statements as discriminative stimuli. The child who is frequently bribed learns to discriminate between conditions in which bribes are in effect and those in which they are not. The parent that often bribes will probably find that the child complies only when bribes are offered” (Catania, 2013, p. 430)
“Bribery: where the reinforcer produces the behavior rather than the behavior producing the reinforcer (contingent). Usually this means the reinforcer comes before the behavior” (Daniels, 2006, p. 302).
“Context: the constant features of a situation, such as the chamber in which an operant session occurs. Experimental contextst acquire behavioral function because they are embedded in the still larger contexts that include the experimental session” (Catania, 2013, p. 434).
“Context for conditioning. Refers to the ontogenic and phylogenetic histories of an organism, including its current physiological status as well as contextual events or stimuli that are present when conditioning occurs” (Pierce & Cheney, 2008, p. 344)
“Context of behavior. Refers to the fact that environment-behavior relationships are always conditional-depending on other circumstances” (Pierce & Cheney, 2008, p. 344)
“Contingency: in the operant case, the conditions under which a response produces a consequence. For example, in an FI, the reinforcer is contingent on a response of a given force, topography, etc., as well as on the passage of time. An organism is said to come into contact with a contingency when its behavior produces some consequences of the contingency.
Sudies of reinforcement schedules analyze contingencies and their effects, as when contingencies of reinforcemet for various IRTs in VI and VR schedules are compared. In this most general usage, contingencies describe any relation, whether completely specified in a procedure or incidental and perhaps fortuitous consequence of them. In a more specific sense, contingencies are the conditional probabilities relating some events (e.g., responses) to others (e.g., stimuli). When responses produce reinforcers, the contingent relation is defined by two conditional probabilities: probability of the reinforcer (1) given a response and (2) given no response. Without both probabilities specified, the contingent relations cannot be distinguished from the incidental temporal contiguities of responses and reinforcers that occur independently over time. Response-reinforcer relations involve two terms, but when correlated with discriminative stimuli they produce a three-term-contingency. Conditional discriminations add a fourth term, and so on for other contingency relations of various orders of complexity.
When applied to respondent cases, contingency refers to conditions under which some stimuli are followed by others. By analogy to the operant case, stimulus-stimulus contingencies expressed as conditional probabilities specify conditions more completely than descriptions in terms of temporal contiguities, and distinguish cases in which two stimuli always occur together from those in which they are frequently paired but also occur independently. Stimuli correlated with stimulus-stimulus contingencies, sometimes called occasion setters, may enter into three-term or higher-order relations” (Catania, 2013, pp. 434-435).
Når en atferd forsterkes og alle andre atferder ekstingveres.
Ekstinksjon (Extinction, prosedyre)
Prosedyren når en tidligere forsterket atferd ikke lenger følges av en forsterker, og atferden avtar i frekvens.
Forsterker (Reinforcer, stimulus)
En forsterker er en hendelse som følger, og øker den fremtidige frekvensen av en atferd.
Forsterkere omtales som positive når en stimulus tilføres situasjonen, og negative når den fremtidige atferden øker ved at en stimulus fjernes fra situasjonen (kontingent på atferden).
Forsterkning (Reinforcement, prosedyre)
Forsterkning er betegnelsen på prosedyren der en en forsterker tilføres (positiv forsterkning) eller fjernes (negativ forsterkning) kontingent på en atferd, med den konsekvens at atferden øker i frekvens.
Når man sukksessivt tilnærmer seg en på forhånd definert atferd ved hjelp av differensiell forsterkning.
Straff (Punisher, stimulus)
En straff er en hendelse som følger, og reduserer/ svekker den fremtidige frekvensen/ intensiteten av en atferd. En straff omtales som positiv når en stimulus tilføres situasjonen, og negativ når den fremtidige atferden reduseres i frekvens eller svekkes i intensitet ved at en stimulus fjernes fra situasjonen (kontingent på atferden).
Straff (Punishment, prosedyre)
Straff er betegnelsen på prosedyren der en en straff tilføres (positiv straff) eller fjernes (negativ straff) kontingent på en atferd, med den konsekvens at atferden synker i frekvens eller intensiteten svekkes.
Tretermskontigensen; Sd – R – Sr er et eksempel på økonomi i forklaring.
Omtales som firetermskontingensen når man tar med Motivasjonelle Operasjoner:
(MO): Sd – R – Sr